Recently, a Canadian petition sought and succeeded in removing a t-shirt from the Vans line. Vans gave a feeble apology online, and so the petition continues to urge Vans to make a bigger statement regarding the offense it caused. The t-shirt was a drawing of several beer cans taped together in a stack with wooden wings on the side, making a totem pole out of the cans. Under the picture, “Vans” was spelled with a tipi sketched in as a capital A. While many Canadian First Nations citizens and allies alike are quite relieved that this product is at least discontinued, many others are retorting with the typical “get over it” statements. I’ve decided to use this opportunity as an excuse to educate readers – Native and non-Native alike – on the anti-shirt perspective in this case, and the tribal histories involved.
One of the biggest, underlying issues in a lot of Native “imagery” being used on products/mascots is “Pan-Indianism”. I know I’ve written on this before but, just to reiterate, “Pan-Indianism” is when you call any indigenous person in North and South America an “Indian” and stop differentiating the cultures. Ignoring the mixed feelings surrounding the continued use of this misappropriated racial title, “Pan-Indianism” has a significantly deleterious effect on the portrayal and understanding of a very diverse racial category of peoples. Instead of “Indians” being regarded by their tribal Nations and cultural identities, they are classified as one “monoculture” – generally something most closely resembling Plains tribes. When non-Indians think of “Indians”, therefore, they likely conjure up images like headdresses, tipis, war paint, bows and arrows, tomahawks, and horses. These images are so prominent because they are the stereotypes portrayed by Cowboys vs. Indians films, largely produced in the 1950s, which portray the western frontier with a largely inaccurate and biased adaptation of culture and the “savage warrior”. How comfortable would you feel drawing a caricature that represents all European/Middle Eastern peoples from the last 1,000 years? “Indians” are even more culturally diverse, considering all of these Nations occupy two continents.
Regions are often the best way to vaguely classify the variances in cultures in the Americas, much like regions of Europe and Africa can be used to loosely categorize kinds of peoples. Much like you have the Baltic region or Slavic region of Europe, or West Africa, you have the Northeast region or Southeast region of the United States. A lot of tribes in certain regions have cousin cultures. Think of the Romance languages, like French, Italian, and Spanish all coming or being greatly influenced by the domineering Romans in ancient history. Cultural evolution and relationships exist like this all around the world. In the Great Lakes region, languages like Ojibwe fall under the Algonquin umbrella which covers a lot of the eastern parts of North America. Certain aspects of Algonquin culture are, too, unique to these areas.
Well, we also have what we call a Northwest Culture. This region is most specifically identified in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and the western coastal region, climbing up into southeastern Alaska. The Northwest Culture is very distinct from the cultures in other regions, largely on account of the influences and contact the tribes have had over the years and also their local resources. The Haida and the Tlingit are two examples of tribes living along this coastal area. Because of their natural resources in this region, they are well-known for their use of red cedar and of their ties to fishing.
Red cedar was useful for building plank houses, which these tribes generally lived in. The lumber resources were also ideal for making dugout canoes for fishing. In fact, fishing has always been a central part of many tribes’ cultures, depending on their traditional location. A lot of Tlingit artwork and design, like from other tribes in the region, reflects this by using designs in often red, black, and white of fish and whales. These tribes do not wear headdresses, not any of their members; however, they are known for their unique, woven basket hats.
“Totem” actually comes from an Algonquian word odoodem, meaning “his kinship group”. These poles had many different purposes among the tribes known to use them in their cultures (e.g., Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian, Kwakwaka’wakw, Bella Coola, and Nuu-chah-nulth). Sometimes they were used as a welcome sign, sometimes they were placed in front of a residence to shame someone into paying a debt (called a “shame pole”). Generally, six kinds of totem pole categories are identified that vary by their purpose of construction and placement when erected. The poles were not regarded as religious artifacts, per se, but they could hold great importance in telling a story or representing important events in one’s life.
Sometimes the stories told might be mythical, and many times they told about the experiences of a living person’s life or a known ancestor’s. No tribe ever worshipped these poles, as once misunderstood to be the case by settlers, but the specific interpretation of each pole can vary greatly between tribal cultures that use them.
After looking over this broad view of Northwest Culture, it should be pretty clear that “Pan-Indian” symbols do not come even close to representing these diverse tribes. Looking back at the t-shirt Vans pulled, we can immediately pick out the totem pole – a symbol of many of the cultures along the western shores of the country the shirt was produced in. Yet, there is that tipi again in the Vans name. Why is that? It is very out-of-place. But the real kicker is the totem pole being comprised of taped-together beer cans. What is Vans trying to say? Is this a shame pole? Are all Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian, Kwakwaka’wakw, Bella Coola, and Nuu-chah-nulth citizens drunks? Is this a family history pole, telling us that beer was an essential part of all Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian, Kwakwaka’wakw, Bella Coola, and Nuu-chah-nulth family lives? Is this a mythical story, telling us that all Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian, Kwakwaka’wakw, Bella Coola, and Nuu-chah-nulth worship beer? Are we now disregarding the amazing craftsmanship of carvers from the Northwest tribes (who didn’t have metal knives until European contact) and paralleling their work to made-in-Canada aluminum cans held together with tape? Seriously, what do you think it means? What would you think if you were shopping? Would you even recognize the great totem pole as a cultural identifier of Northwest peoples?
It is a commonly known fact that whiskey and other alcoholic products were used to trade with many tribes during settler expansion – a tool to addict and manipulate the populations at the time. This has led to the stereotype of the “drunken Indian”, accelerated by the continued alcoholism experienced in many impoverished tribal communities. However, a lot of pieces to the modern story are ignored today. One of these pieces is the connection between alcoholism, as a coping mechanism, and poverty. With the majority of North American tribal members living in poverty, and the high rates associated with any community’s alcoholism to poverty, this is not strictly an “Indian problem”. It is a human problem of substance addiction, concentrated by race on concentration camps Reservations and Reserves. Furthermore, here are two more facts for you to consider, provided by SAMSHA: 1. Natives have the highest rate of ABSTINENCE, and many Reservations forbid the sale of alcohol on tribal land; 2. The highest rates of alcoholism (in at least the United States) occur in white men – not Native, not black, not anyone else, but white men. Yet Natives bear the stereotype, largely put on them by the historic majority culture – white men.
Well, I hope you’ve learned a little about indigenous diversity today. I also hope you can see how inaccurate a lot of stereotypes are to indigenous cultures. Although I understand a t-shirt isn’t going to be the weapon being used to murder indigenous peoples, I do believe the false imagery and associations are a microcosm of traumatic experiences. Like many other inaccurate depictions, images like these demonstrate how indigenous peoples viewed by dominating society (microaggression) and how the stereotyped indigenous peoples end up viewing themselves in an already often-depressing environment. Finally, the symbols used on the shirt borrowed from different cultures of a diverse race and labeled that race with a negative characteristic of alcoholism; this, by definition, actually constitutes as racism, regardless of Vans’ statement that it was not Vans’ intention to offend in any way.
What do you think?